فوری: شروع دوره Pre Intermediate از ۳۰ آبان - آزمون آزمایشی آیلتس ۲ آذر

اخبار

انواع سوالات و ترتیب آن ها در ریدینگ آیلتس

IELTS Reading Question Types & Order

 

پاسخ سوالات ریدینگ آیلتس IELTS Reading چه ترتیبی دارند و کجا پیدا می شوند؟

قبلا گفتیم که سوالات ریدینگ آیلتس IELTS Reading 5 نوع کلی و ۱۸نوع با تفاوت های جزئی دارند:

 

  1. True, False, Not Given
  2. Yes, No, No Information (Not Given)
  3. Matching Information (Items/Features)
  4. Matching Headings
  5. Classification
  6. Sentence Endings
  7. Multiple Choice Single Answer
  8. Multiple Choice Multiple Answer
  9. Multiple Completion Sentence
  10. Multiple Choice Passage Heading
  11. Table Completion
  12. Flowchart Completion
  13. Note Completion
  14. Sentence Completion
  15. Map Completion
  16. Summary Completion
  17. Diagram Labeling
  18. Short Answer


در اینجا می خواهیم این 18نوع سوال را به دو دسته کلی از دید ترتیب پاسخ دهی تقسیم بندی کنیم.

 

سوالات گلوبال Global در ریدینگ آیلتس IELTS Reading

دسته اول را گلوبال Global می نامیم. سوالات دسته گلوبال ترتیب خاصی نداشته و ممکن است در هرجایی از متن پیدا شوند. تقدم و تاخر خاصی در این سوالات وجود ندارد. سوالات گروه گلوبال عبارتند از:

IELTS Reading Global Questions

  1. Matching Information (Items/Features)
  2. Matching Headings
  3. Classification
  4. Sentence Endings
  5. Multiple Choice Passage Heading
  6. Summary Completion

سوالات لوکال Local در ریدینگ آیلتس IELTS Reading

دسته دوم را لوکال Local می نامیم. سوالات دسته لوکال به معنای "محلی" با متن پیشروی می کنند. این سوالات دقیقا پشت سر هم در متن یافت شده و تقدم تاخر آن ها ترتیبی است. این یعنی که می دانیم اگر پاسخ یک سوال را پیدا کردیم، قطعا پاسخ سوال قبلی، قبل از آن قسمت بوده و پاسخ سوال بعدی، قطعا بعد از آن قسمت است. سوالات گروه لوکال عبارتند از:

IELTS Reading Local Questions

  1. True, False, Not Given
  2. Yes, No, No Information (Not Given)
  3. Multiple Choice Single Answer
  4. Multiple Choice Multiple Answer
  5. Multiple Completion Sentence
  6. Table Completion
  7. Flowchart Completion
  8. Note Completion
  9. Sentence Completion
  10. Map Completion
  11. Diagram Labeling
  12. Short Answer

 

دیدید که اکثر سوال های ریدینگ آیلتس IELTS Reading در دسته لوکال Local قرار دارند. البته همانطور که دقت کردید، سوال های Summary Completion در هر دو دسته لوکال و گلوبال وجود دارند. گاهی اوقات این سوالات لوکال بوده و گاهی گلوبال هستند. هیچ مشخصه ای وجود ندارد مگر اینکه پاسخ چند سوال را پیدا کنید تا بتوانید متوجه شوید که سوالات این Summary لوکال هستند یا گلوبال.

 


تشخیص سوالات لوکال Local و گلوبال Global در ریدینگ آیلتس IELTS Reading چه فایده ای دارد؟

در آزمون آیلتس IELTS، مدیریت زمان بسیار حایز اهمیت است. با توجه به توضیح این دو نوع سوال، اگر متقاضی آیلتس IELTS ابتدا با پاسخگویی به سوال های گلوبال شروع کند، باید وقت زیادی را صرف پیدا کردن اطلاعات کند چرا که سوالات هیچ ترتیب خاصی ندارند. پس توصیه می شود که با پاسخ دهی به سوالات لوکال شروع کند چرا که مطمئن هستیم پاسخ آن ها به ترتیب است. با این استراتژی در ریدینگ آیلتس IELTS Reading، اولا از هدر رفتن وقت زیادی جلوگیری می شود؛ دوما وقتی متقاضی به سوالات گلوبال رسید، تقریبا یک دور متن را خوانده و متن برایش آشنا شده است. حالا دیگر مهم نیست که اطلاعات کجای passage می باشد؛ او می تواند به راحتی و با صرف کمترین زمان آن ها را پیدا کرده و پاسخ سوالات را بدهد.

 


آیا باید سوالات لوکال تمام ریدینگ آیلتس IELTS Reading را جواب داده و سپس از ابتدا به سراغ سوالات گلوبال بروم؟

ابداً! این یک اشتباه بزرگ و متداول است. اینکه می گوییم در ابتدا سوالات لوکال را جواب داده و سپس به سراغ سوالات گلوبال بروید به این دلیل است که با متن آشنا شده و برای پیدا کردن پاسخ سوالات گلوبال، وقت خود را هدر ندهید. اگر به سراغ passage های بعدی بروید، اتفاقی که می افتد حتی شرایط را بدتر نیز می کند!

پس، با استفاده از تکنیک لوکال و گلوبال، یک Section را کامل کرده و سپس به سراغ Section های بعدی بروید.

مثال:

در این تمرین می خواهیم به شما نشان دهیم با چه تقدم تاخری بهتر است به سوالات پاسخ دهید:

 

Cambridge IELTS 11 Test 4

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 200 below.

Research using twins

To biomedical researchers all over the world, twins offer a precious opportunity to untangle the influence of genes and the environment - of nature and nurture. Because identical twins come from a single fertilized egg that splits into two, they share virtually the same genetic code. Any differences between them -one twin having younger looking skin, for example - must be due to environmental factors such as less time spent in the sun.

Alternatively, by comparing the experiences of identical twins with those of fraternal twins, who come from separate eggs and share on average half their DNA, researchers can quantify the extent to which our genes affect our lives. If identical twins are more similar to each other with respect to an ailment than fraternal twins are, then vulnerability to the disease must be rooted at least in part in heredity.

These two lines of research - studying the differences between identical twins to pinpoint the influence of environment, and comparing identical twins with fraternal ones to measure the role of inheritance - have been crucial to understanding the interplay of nature and nurture in determining our personalities, behavior, and vulnerability to disease.

The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase 'nature and nurture'). But twin studies took a surprising twist in the 1980s, with the arrival of studies into identical twins who had been separated at birth and reunited as adults. Over two decades 137 sets of twins eventually visited Thomas Bouchard's lab in what became known as the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Numerous tests were carried out on the twins, and they were each asked more than 15,000 questions.

Bouchard and his colleagues used this mountain of data to identify how far twins were affected by their genetic makeup. The key to their approach was a statistical concept called heritability. in broad terms, the heritability of a trait measures the extent to which differences among members of a population can be explained by differences in their genetics. And wherever Bouchard and other scientists looked, it seemed, they found the invisible hand of genetic influence helping to shape our lives.

Lately, however, twin studies have helped lead scientists to a radical new conclusion: that nature and nurture are not the only elemental forces at work. According to a recent field called epigenetics, there is a third factor also in play, one that in some cases serves as a bridge between the environment and our genes, and in others operates on its own to shape who we are.

Epigenetic processes are chemical reactions tied to neither nature nor nurture but representing what researchers have called a 'third component'. These reactions influence how our genetic code is expressed: how each gene is strengthened or weakened, even turned on or off, to build our bones, brains and all the other parts of our bodies.

If you think of our DNA as an immense piano keyboard and our genes as the keys - each key symbolizing a segment of DNA responsible for a particular note, or trait, and all the keys combining to make us who we are - then epigenetic processes determine when and how each key can be struck, changing the tune being played.

One way the study of epigenetics is revolutionizing our understanding of biology is by revealing a mechanism by which the environment directly impacts on genes. Studies of animals, for example, have shown that when a rat experiences stress during pregnancy, it can cause epigenetic changes in a fetus that lead to behavioral problems as the rodent grows up. Other epigenetic processes appear to occur randomly, while others are normal, such as those that guide embryonic cells as they become heart, brain, or liver cells, for example.

Geneticist Danielle Reed has worked with many twins over the years and thought deeply about what twin studies have taught us. 'It's very clear when you look at twins that much of what they share is hardwired,' she says. 'Many things about them are absolutely the same and unalterable. But it's also clear, when you get to know them, that other things about them are different. Epigenetics is the origin of a lot of those differences, in my view.'

Reed credits Thomas Bouchard's work for today's surge in twin studies. 'He was the trailblazer,' she says. 'We forget that 50 years ago things like heart disease were thought to be caused entirely by lifestyle. Schizophrenia was thought to be due to poor mothering. Twin studies have allowed us to be more reflective about what people are actually born with and what's caused by experience.'

Having said that, Reed adds, the latest work in epigenetics promises to take our understanding even further. 'What I like to say is that nature writes some things in pencil and some things in pen,' she says. 'Things written in pen you can't change. That's DNA. But things written in pencil you can. That's epigenetics. Now that we're actually able to look at the DNA and see where the pencil writings are, it's sort of a whole new world.'

Questions 1-4

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE                   if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE                 if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN       if there is no information on this

1. There may be genetic causes for the differences in how young the skin of identical twins looks.
2. Twins are at greater risk of developing certain illnesses than non-twins.
3. Bouchard advertised in newspapers for twins who had been separated at birth.
4. Epigenetic processes are different from both genetic and environmental processes.

 

Questions 5-9

Look at the following statements (Questions 5-9) and the list of researchers below.
Match each statement with the correct researcher, A, B or C.
Write the correct letter, A, B or C, in boxes 5-9 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.

 

List of Researchers

A.  Francis Galton
B.  Thomas Bouchard
C.  Danielie Reed

 

5. invented a term used to distinguish two factors affecting human characteristics
6. expressed the view that the study of epigenetics will increase our knowledge
7. developed a mathematical method of measuring genetic influences
8. pioneered research into genetics using twins
9. carried out research into twins who had lived apart


Questions 10-13
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-F, below.
Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.

 

Epigenetic processes

In epigenetic processes, 10 .................... influence the activity of our genes, for example in creating our internal 11 .................... . The study of epigenetic processes is uncovering a way in which our genes can be affected by our 12 .................... . One example is that if a pregnant rat suffers stress, the new-born rat may later show problems in its 13 .................... .

 

A. nurture

B. organs

C. code

D. chemicals

E. environment

F. behaviour

در این نمونه که تست 4 کتاب کمبریج آیلتس 11 می باشد، در ابتدا باید سوال های 1 الی 4 را جواب داد چرا که لوکال هستند. سپس، سوال های 10 الی 13 را جواب می دهیم چونکه 5 الی 9 سوال های Classification بوده و گلوبال هستند. سوال های 10 الی 13 Summary Completion هستند و نمی دانیم که لوکال یا گلوبال هستند. اما قطعا سوال های 5 الی 9 را آخر جواب دهید چونکه مطمئن هستیم گلوبال هستند. بعد از جواب گویی به تمام سوالات، به سراغ قسمت بعدی می رویم.

 

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این مرکز هیچ گونه فعالیتی در زمینه مهاجرت و اعزام دانشجو به کشورهای دیگر نداشته و ندارد و تنها در زمینه ی خدمات آموزشی آزمون آیلتس فعال است.

تمامي خدمات اين سايت، حسب مورد، داراي مجوزهاي لازم از مراجع مربوطه مي‌باشند و تابع قوانين و مقررات جمهوري اسلامي ايران است.

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